[fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][fusion_title size=”2″ content_align=”left” style_type=”” sep_color=”” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=”” class=”” id=””]GSK-3 and evolution[/fusion_title][fusion_text]Mammalian GSK-3 exists as two isozymes, α and β, encoded by two different genes. We found that unlike other vertebrates, the GSK-3α gene is missing in birds. The α and β isozymes split from a common precursor approximately at the time of emergence of vertebrates. Although both GSK-3α and β genes are present and highly conserved in fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, the GSK-3α gene is missing from the genomes and transcriptomes of avian species indicating that the GSK-3α gene was lost after the split of ancestral birds from reptilians. Additionally we found that unlike other substrates of GSK-3, lack of GSK-3α resulted in a robust reduction in tau phosphorylation in the adult bird brain.

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